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    Figure 1.1. The authors at the base of the Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), also known as the Great Pyramid of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre (Kephren; middle) and the Pyramid of Menkaure (Mycerinus; smallest) in the background.

Figure 1.1. The authors at the base of the Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops), also known as the Great Pyramid of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre (Kephren; middle) and the Pyramid of Menkaure (Mycerinus; smallest) in the background.

   
  
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   Figure 2.1. The Great Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak Temple Complex, Luxor, Egypt. 

Figure 2.1. The Great Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak Temple Complex, Luxor, Egypt. 

   
  
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   Figure 2.2. Hieroglyphic texts from the tomb chamber in the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid of Unis, showing the neatness and care exercised in their preparation.

Figure 2.2. Hieroglyphic texts from the tomb chamber in the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid of Unis, showing the neatness and care exercised in their preparation.

   
  
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   Figure 2.3. Sun at noon sighted at the top of the Great Pyramid at Giza.

Figure 2.3. Sun at noon sighted at the top of the Great Pyramid at Giza.

   
  
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   Figure 3.1. Sumerian tablet. The first word of the text is  An . British Museum.

Figure 3.1. Sumerian tablet. The first word of the text is An. British Museum.

   
  
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   Figure 3.4. A magnified image of a pressing from a cylinder seal from the Sargonid (Akkadian) period, third millennium BCE, commemorating the return to fertility in the new year. The sun god Shamash can be seen arising out of the mound in the center, is greeted by Inanna as a vegetation goddess, her shoulders sprouting rays of vegetation. On the plain is a hunter with his lion. To the right is the god Enki (the Akkadian god Ea) with a Janus-headed attendant; he restrains the storm bird Zu, the adversary who stole the Tablets of Destiny; the animal at his feet is a ram (note the horn). British Museum. 

Figure 3.4. A magnified image of a pressing from a cylinder seal from the Sargonid (Akkadian) period, third millennium BCE, commemorating the return to fertility in the new year. The sun god Shamash can be seen arising out of the mound in the center, is greeted by Inanna as a vegetation goddess, her shoulders sprouting rays of vegetation. On the plain is a hunter with his lion. To the right is the god Enki (the Akkadian god Ea) with a Janus-headed attendant; he restrains the storm bird Zu, the adversary who stole the Tablets of Destiny; the animal at his feet is a ram (note the horn). British Museum. 

   
  
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   Figure 3.5. A close-up view of the wall of the tomb of Unis.

Figure 3.5. A close-up view of the wall of the tomb of Unis.

   
  
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   Figure 3.6. Detail of Egyptian mound scene showing the hours of the night, from the tomb of Ramses I. Note the wavy lines indicating water. Compare with the Sumerian motif in figure 3.4.

Figure 3.6. Detail of Egyptian mound scene showing the hours of the night, from the tomb of Ramses I. Note the wavy lines indicating water. Compare with the Sumerian motif in figure 3.4.

   
  
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   Figure 3.7. Osiris

Figure 3.7. Osiris

   
  
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    Figure 3.8. Seth. Detail from the Karnak Temple Complex, Luxor, Egypt.

Figure 3.8. Seth. Detail from the Karnak Temple Complex, Luxor, Egypt.

   
  
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   Figure 3.9. Ptah on his plinth. 

Figure 3.9. Ptah on his plinth. 

   
  
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   Figure 3.10. Khnum creating a pharaoh. In the image there are two humanoid figures, one is the Pharaoh’s body and second, with a bird in hand, is his Ka or spirit. 

Figure 3.10. Khnum creating a pharaoh. In the image there are two humanoid figures, one is the Pharaoh’s body and second, with a bird in hand, is his Ka or spirit. 

   
  
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   Figure 4.1. Jupiter as seen through the pillars of the hypostyle hall in the Luxor Temple, Egypt. 

Figure 4.1. Jupiter as seen through the pillars of the hypostyle hall in the Luxor Temple, Egypt. 

   
  
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   Figure 4.2. Egyptian hieroglyph AS. British Museum.

Figure 4.2. Egyptian hieroglyph AS. British Museum.

   
  
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   Figure 4.3. A tree of nourishment, from the tomb of Tuthmosis III, Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt.

Figure 4.3. A tree of nourishment, from the tomb of Tuthmosis III, Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt.

   
  
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   Figure 5.1. Cylinder seals of a crowned Gilgamesh with a sword or dagger and an axe-wielding Enkidu slaying the bearded Humbaba. 

Figure 5.1. Cylinder seals of a crowned Gilgamesh with a sword or dagger and an axe-wielding Enkidu slaying the bearded Humbaba. 

      
  
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   Figure 5.2. Gilgamesh and Enkidu killing the Bull of Heaven.

 

Figure 5.2. Gilgamesh and Enkidu killing the Bull of Heaven.

   
  
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   Figure 5.3. Gilgamesh sleeps while the snake steals the secret flower of eternity.

Figure 5.3. Gilgamesh sleeps while the snake steals the secret flower of eternity.

   
  
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   Figure 6.1. Osiris impregnating Isis. Temple of Osiris at Abydos, built by Seti I.

Figure 6.1. Osiris impregnating Isis. Temple of Osiris at Abydos, built by Seti I.

   
  
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   Figure 6.2. The Sphinx. Giza Plateau.

Figure 6.2. The Sphinx. Giza Plateau.

   
  
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   Figure 6.3. The Pyramids of Giza. This view is no longer available because modern high-rise apartments have been built in the foreground.

Figure 6.3. The Pyramids of Giza. This view is no longer available because modern high-rise apartments have been built in the foreground.

   
  
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   Figure 6.4. Osiris accompanied by his two guardians, Isis and Nephthys. Nephthys stands to the left of Isis.